Today's world cannot be thought of without Internet. Although Internet has made many things but at the same time it has posed many security risks too, if not used in a proper way.

Thus it is important to know about possible threats, challenges and risks of working on Internet to ensure personal safety and information security.


Cyber Safety refers to the safe and responsible use of Internet to ensure safety and security of personal information and not posing threat to anyone else's information.

Safely Browsing The Web-

These days working on web has become inevitable and thus it is very important to know the threats it offers in many ways. Safe browsing on web needs you to know many things like: What are the possible dangers?, How to avoid these.
Also you need to know that not every site is safe to visit; whatever you post or do online is visible to others; not everything that you see or is promised online is true. Also, safeguarding your computer is very crucial before you go online.

Identity Theft-

dentity theft is a type of fraud that involves using someone else's identity to steal money or gain other benefits.
Online identity theft refers to an act of stealing someone's personal information such as name, login detail etc. and then posing as that person online.

Ways Website Track you-

a) IP Address- IP address is a unique address of your device when you connect to the Internet. From your IP address, a website can determine your rough geographical location.
b) Cookies - Cookies are small text files on your computer storing small pieces of information related to your online habits.
They have many uses- for example, when you sign into your online-banking website, a cookie remembers your login information. When you change a setting on a website, a cookie stores that setting. Cookies can also identify you and track your browsing activity across a website.
Cookies can be:-
First Party cookies- These are the cookies that store your own login id, passwords, auto fill information etc. for some website that you frequently visit.
Third Party cookies- These are the cookies that websites store to know about your search history and web browsing history so as to place advertisement as per your interests. Third party cookies may result in many advertisements on your WebPages.
c) HTTP Referrer- When you click a link, your browser loads the web page linked to it and tells the website where you came from. It will open the linked website and internal information about you as such as your IP address, your location, your web browser, machine type etc. will also be provided to the linked website- it is known as HTTP referrer.
d) Super Cookies- These are cookies but these are persistent cookies, i.e., they come back even after you delete them. Super cookies (evercookies) store cookie data in multiple places. When a website notices that you’ve deleted part of the super cookie, the information is repopulated from the other location.

All the above things (IP Address, Cookies, HTTP Referrer, Super cookies) leak your identity information to websites and it may be used against you. Solution to this is Private browsing and Anonymous browsing.


Anonymous browsers allow users to view websites without revealing any personal information like their IP address, location, machine type etc.
Anonymous web browsing can be achieved via proxy servers, virtual private networks and other anonymity programs such as Tor. These programs work by sending information through a series of routers in order to hide the source and destination of information. However, there is never a guarantee of anonymity with these servers.
One of the most well-known anonymous browsers is The Tor browser. It's an open-source piece of software that was originally developed by the United States Navy. It was designed so that the users could send sensitive information without it being intercepted. Tor stands for ‘The Onion Router' and the browser lets users access websites anonymously.
Private Browsing-
When you enable private browsing modes, you are telling your browser not to record which websites you're visiting, and telling it not to use or download any cookies. InPrivate Browsing or Incognito Browsing helps prevent Internet Explorer from storing data about your browsing session. This includes cookies, temporary Internet files, history, and other data. Toolbars and extensions are disabled by default. (Ctrl+Shift+P)
A type of browsing wherein browser opens in incognito (private) mode or through proxy or VPN, and does not share cookies about your online activity, is called Private browsing.
Proxy- Proxy allows users to conceal(Hide/Cover) their IP address while browsing the Web or using other Internet services.
Virtual Private Network or a VPN – A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a safe and encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as the internet.

Confidentiality of information ensures that only authorized users get access to sensitive and protected data.

Practices to Ensure Confidentiality of Information-
Use firewall wherever possible
Control browser setting to block tracking
Browse privately wherever possible
Be careful while posting on Internet
Ensure Safe sites while entering crucial information
Carefully handle emails
Do not give sensitive information
Avoid using public computers
Don’t save your login information
Erase history , cookies and traces of your work.

The Dark Web

The deep web refers to all parts of the internet (sites, e-shops, forums, etc.) that are not accessible by a regular search engine like Google or Bing. A subset of the deep web is the dark web, or darknet , which requires a special browser, such as Tor , to access it. Although the dark web is not itself illegal, the anonymity it affords makes it a hotbed for criminal activity.

On the dark web, cybercriminals can exchange the most dangerous and odious commodities our society has to offer: malware, drugs, weapons, child pornography, and even contract killing. The dark web is also where information, like stolen passwords or credit card numbers, gets bought and sold. That's why if you're a victim of a data breach, it can sometimes take a few days (or even longer) until someone purchases the stolen data and tries to access your account. 


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