Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the case, central processing unit (CPU), monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.

By contrast, software is the set of instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is "hard" or rigid with respect to changes, whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to change.
Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system

Case- The computer case encloses and holds most of the components of the system. It provides mechanical support and protection for internal elements such as the motherboard, disk drives, and power supplies, and controls and directs the flow of cooling air over internal components. The case is also part of the system to control electromagnetic interference radiated by the computer and protects internal parts from electrostatic discharge. Large tower cases provide extra internal space for multiple disk drives or other peripherals and usually stand on the floor, while desktop cases provide less expansion room. All-in-one style designs include a video display built into the same case. Portable and laptop computers require cases that provide impact protection for the unit. A current development in laptop computers is a detachable keyboard, which allows the system to be configured as a touch-screen tablet.
A computer case , also known as a computer chassis , tower , system unit , or cabinet , is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a personal computer.

Power Supply Unit- A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage direct current (DC) power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery, normally for a period of hours. The PSU typically uses a switched-mode power supply (SMPS), with power MOSFETs (power metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors ) used in the converters and regulator circuits of the SMPS.
Motherboard- Alternatively referred to as the mb , mainboard , mboard , mobo , mobd , backplane board , base board , main circuit board , planar board , system board , or a logic board on Apple computers. The motherboard is a printed circuit board and foundation of a computer that is the biggest board in a computer chassis. It allocates power and allows communication to and between the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware components.

Expansion Bus- In computing , an expansion card , expansion board , adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector , or expansion slot , on a computer motherboard , backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. Expansion cards can be used to obtain or expand on features not offered by the motherboard.

An expansion bus is a computer bus which moves information between the internal hardware of a computer system (including the CPU and RAM ) and peripheral devices. It is a collection of wires and protocols that allows for the expansion of a computer.

Hard Drive- The hard drive is a storage device responsible for storing permanent and temporary data. This data comes in many different forms, but is essentially anything saved or installed to a computer: for example, computer programs, family photos, operating system, word-processing documents, and so on.
There are two different types of storage devices: the traditional hard disk drive (HDD) and the newer solid state drives (SSD). Hard disk drives work by writing binary data onto spinning magnetic disks called platters that rotate at high speeds, while a solid-state drive stores data by using static flash memory chips.

Input and output peripherals-
Input and output devices are typically housed externally to the main computer chassis. The following are either standard or very common to many computer systems.
Input device- Input devices allow the user to enter information into the system, or control its operation. Most personal computers have a mouse and keyboard , but laptop systems typically use a touchpad instead of a mouse. Other input devices include webcams , microphones , joysticks , and image scanners .
Output device- Output devices are designed around the senses of human beings. For example, monitors display text that can be read, speakers produce sound that can be heard. Such devices could include printers , speakers , monitors.

A peripheral or peripheral device is ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer ".

Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer:

  1. an input device sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse , keyboard , graphics tablet , image scanner , barcode reader , game controller , light pen , light gun , microphone , digital camera , webcam , dance pad , and read-only memory );
  2. an output device provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor , projector , printer , headphones and computer speaker ); and
  3. an input/output device performs both input and output functions, such as a computer data storage device (including a disk drive , USB flash drive , memory card and tape drive ).

Many modern electronic devices, such as internet capable digital watches , keyboards , and tablet computers , have interfaces that allow them to be used as computer peripheral devices.

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